Wednesday, March 24, 2010

What to expect while Migrating to Spring 3

Recently, I migrated one of my applications to Spring 3. The project was previously using Spring 2.0.8. Spring 2 was released in 2006 so it was high time that we migrated to a later version. That and the fact that there are plenty of reasons to migrate to Spring 3. Although Spring 3 was released in December 2009, the milestone and other pre-releases of Spring 3 have been around and being actively used by the Spring community for more than a year.

The application that we wanted to migrate was fairly large with 150k lines of code (tests not included). Since this was a heavily used application, we couldn't afford to have many regression errors. Luckily, we had about 6500 unit tests and about 1700 functional tests running constantly in a continuous integration system. Having so many tests execute every time we changed something basically ensured that we don't have too many regression errors. It also considerably boosts the confidence level when we want to make a change to the application.

The first thing you will notice when upgrading to Spring 3 from Spring 2 is that it is packaged in a bunch of jars (or maven dependencies). This changed in Spring 2.5 and is generally regarded a good move although it makes upgrading a bit of a pain (even with maven). The good part is, the jar/dependency names are pretty self descriptive. It'll take a couple of hit and miss tries to get all the dependencies into the classpath.

Now, lets move on to using Spring 3.
API Compatibility:
Spring 3 is generally API compatible with the older versions. The only major difference you might find is your compiler might warn about generics. Older classes like JdbcTemplate got a generics refit to their APIs.
For example: The return values of methods like queryForList got changed to give a more meaningful signature.
List<Map> userDetails = jdbcTemplate.queryForList

List<Map<String, Object>> userDetails = jdbcTemplate.queryForList

Apart from these, there are also a few minor API changes where
Example: AbstractBeanFactory.getMergedBeanDefinition(..) returns BeanDefinition instead of RootBeanDefinition.
Most of these API changes are minor and should be easy to resolve.

If you are using the any of these beans and you had any of these declared as lazy-init, you may be in for a small surprise.

These components extend a new SmartLifecycle interface and are eligible for autostartup. Previous versions of Spring lacked a nice way to start services in a given order. The depends-on attribute doesn't really help if there are a lot of components to be started, especially if they are spread a bunch of xml files. The Lifecycle interface provided a crude way of achieving ordered bean startup albeit with some manual coding. The Phase, SmartLifecycle interfaces take it a step further and give an ability to automatically start your services when Spring starts up. More on this in a later blog post.

A SmartLifeCycle bean can declare that it needs to be autoStarted (by returning true in the isAutoStartup() method). When the ApplicationContext starts, it looks for any SmartLifeCycle beans that are present in the context, and initializes all of them, even if they are marked as lazy. It then selectively starts the ones that are marked to be autoStarted. This means that if any of these beans are previously declared to be lazy-init, they will be initialized after application context has initialized. This is not really a bug as the isAutoStartup() method is available to Spring only after the bean has been initialized. The consolation if any is that these beans are initialized in a later phase, during the startup of SmartLifecycle beans.

In our application, we were using a few of these beans. While testing, we were counting on these beans not getting initialized due to the lazy-init attribute. But, with Spring 3 these beans were all getting initialized, which was undesirable. The correct resolution was to move these beans out of the bean context into a separate context xml file that is never loaded during testing.

We've been running Spring 3 in production for a little over 2 weeks now, with no issues. Overall, the Spring 3 upgrade was pretty painless and straightforward. I think the Spring team did a good job of trying to preserve API compatibility and to make sure that there were no regression errors in the APIs.

If you are using an older version of Spring, it is time to move to Spring 3.

Ofcourse, you should follow me on twitter.

Friday, March 5, 2010

The first Date sucked. Can a second Date fix it? JSR 310

Well technically, this is the third Date API. But, it forms a much better title!

JSR 310 is the new Date Time API specification. I'm overjoyed by the fact that Java will finally get the long overdue revamp to the infamous java.util.Date and java.util.Calendar classes. It is nice to see that JSR 310 builds on Joda Time API unlike some other APIs that didn't follow this approach (cough: java.util.logging).

The JSR 310 is in early draft review. And, they are looking for feedback about the API. So, I decided to take a crack at it.

There are a lot of things done right with this API. One of the nicest things is not having to mess around with the pesky Calendar.add(int,int) method. Among a lot of other things, JSR 310 introduces three new classes for date/time handling: LocalDate, LocalTime, LocalDateTime.

Now lets consider what could be better:

You got the money, now give me my constructors:
One thing I don't like is the absence of usable constructors in the three classes LocalDate, LocalTime, LocalDateTime. There are static factory methods that you can use to create the objects but having constructors for the simple usecases would be just nice.

Since LocalDate, LocalTime and LocalDateTime have similar interfaces, I'm going to pick on only one of them. The one that will take the beating is: LocalDate :-)

Compare the following:
Joda Time:
LocalDate date = new LocalDate(2010, 2, 20);

JSR 310:
LocalDate date = LocalDate.of(2010, 2, 20)
This may not be such a big deal to many folks, but I don't see why the constructors shouldn't be exposed especially given that this class is final!

Keep it simple 1: Printing Dates
Joda Time:
LocalDate date = ...
String dateString = date.toString("yyyy/MM/dd");

JSR 310:
LocalDate date = ...
DateTimeFormatter formatter = new DateTimeFormatterBuilder().appendPattern("yyyy/MM/dd").toFormatter()
String dateString = formatter.print(date);

Looks like we could use an overloaded method in the LocalDate class that works like Joda Time. I can imagine that it won't consider all the cases that DateTimeFormatterBuilder handles. But, it can at least address the most general usecase. I could be wrong, I haven't had a chance to use the API much. If so, please feel free to comment and let me know.

Keep it simple 2: Parsing Dates
There is the static method parse in LocalDate
LocalDate date = LocalDate.parse("2010-2-20");
The format that you have to pass it is fixed. For the same reasons as above, it'll be nice to see an overloaded method that takes a string format.

DateAdjusters is awesome:
LocalDate friday = ...
LocalDate monday = DateAdjusters.nextNonWeekendDay().adjustDate(friday);

Consider a case where we want to obtain the next valid working/custom day instead of the next non weekend day. DateAdjuster is an interface, we could write a custom implementation, but providing a method where developers can hook into the DateAdjusters class would be great.

LocalDate nextWorkingDate = DateAdjusters.nextWorkingDay(new WorkingDayDeterminer() {
public boolean isWorkingDay(LocalDate date) {
return ...;

So lets start using it:
Not so fast there. We typically use Date/Time with APIs like JDBC (does anyone use straight JDBC anymore?), Quartz etc. Unless these APIs upgrade to using JSR 310 classes, we won't reap full benefits of using these new classes.

Also, the original Date and Calendar classes are the IE6 of the Java API now. They must die! Or at least be deprecated, so the adoption for these new classes increases.

Finally, what is with the javax.time package name? Not that it bothers me too much, but java.time has an unmatched sex appeal to it.

Ofcourse, you should follow me on twitter.